Inclusión de la diversidad sexual para una cultura de paz en las organizaciones: un estudio en Ecuador

Sara Corlett, Donatella Di Marco, Alicia Arenas

Resumen


A pesar de los avances legislativos y sociales para la inclusión de las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, transexuales e intersexuales (LGBTI) en la sociedad ecuatoriana, éstas siguen siendo objeto de discriminación en el entorno laboral. Ante esta situación, las organizaciones tienen la responsabilidad de implantar prácticas que sean capaces de frenar la discriminación y la violencia y de promover una cultura de paz. Este estudio propone una serie de medidas de inclusión a partir de la información proporcionada por 15 trabajadores/as lesbianas, gays y bisexuales (LGB) ecuatorianos. Así, planteamos que mediante procesos de reclutamiento que atraigan a la diversidad, talleres de formación para reducir prejuicios y estereotipos, eventos de socialización entre trabajadores, una mayor participación de las personas LGB y el establecimiento de normas antidiscriminación, es posible concebir una cultura de inclusión de la diversidad en la que exista una convivencia pacífica entre trabajadores, con independencia de su identidad sexual.


Palabras clave


inclusión; LGB; cultura; diversidad; prácticas; paz

Referencias


Arenas, Alicia; Di Marco, Donatella; Munduate, Lourdes y Euwema, Martin C. (2017) Shaping inclusive workplaces through social dialogue, Cham, Springer

Bartoş, Sebastian E.; Berger, Israel y Hegarty, Peter (2014) Interventions to reduce sexual prejudice: A study-space analysis and meta-analytic review, The Journal of Sex Research, nº 51, pp. 363-382.

Bartoș, Sebastian E. y Hegarty, Peter (2018) A systematic review of qualitative research on interventions to reduce homophobia, Journal of Homosexuality, nº 66, pp. 1262–1286.

Bashshur, Michael R. y Oc, Burak (2014) When voice matters, Journal of Management, nº 41, pp. 1530–1554.

Beauregard, Alexandra T.; Arevshatian, Lilith; Booth, Jonathan E. y Whittle, Stephen (2018) Listen carefully: transgender voices in the workplace, International Journal of Human Resource Management, nº 29, pp. 857–884.

Bell, Myrtle P.; Özbilgin, Mustafa F.; Beauregard, Alexandra T. y Sürgevil, Olca (2011) Voice, silence, and diversity in 21st century organizations: Strategies for inclusion of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender employees, Human Resource Management, nº 50, pp 131–146.

Bezrukova, Katerina, Jehn, Karen A. y Spell, Chester S. (2012) Reviewing diversity training: Where we have been and where we should go, Academy of Management Learning & Education, nº 11, pp. 207-227.

Bogdan, Robert C. y Bilken, Sari K. (1998) Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods, Needham Heights, Allyn & Bacon.

Braun, Virginia y Clarke, Victoria (2006) Using thematic analysis in Psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, nº 3, pp. 77–101.

Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (2015) Violencia contra las personas LGBTI en América, en http://www.oas.org/es/cidh/informes/pdfs/violenciapersonaslgbti.pdf [Consultado el 2 de diciembre de 2019].

Consejo Nacional para la Igualdad de Género (2019) Agenda nacional de las mujeres y personas LGBTI 2018-2021, en https://www.igualdadgenero.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Agenda_ANI.pdf [Consultado el 2 de diciembre de 2019].

Corlett, Sara; Di Marco, Donatella y Arenas, Alicia (2019) «Coming out» across cultures: Examining the experiences of Ecuadorian and Spanish LGB employees, Current Psychology.

Cortina, Lilia M. (2008) Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 33(1), pp. 55-75.

Cortina, Lilia M. y Magley, Vicki J. (2003) Raising voice, risking retaliation: Events following interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, nº 8, pp. 247-265.

Croteau, James M. (1996) Research on the work experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings, Journal of Vocational Behavior, nº 48, pp. 195-209.

Di Marco, Donatella; Hoel, Helge; Arenas, Alicia y Munduate, Lourdes (2018) Workplace incivility as modern sexual prejudice, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, nº 33, pp. 1978-2004.

Dipboye, Robert L. y Halverson, Stefanie K. (2004) Subtle (and not so subtle) discrimination in organizations, en Griffin, Ricky W. y O’Leary-Kelly, Anne M. [eds.] The dark side of organizational behavior, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, pp. 131-158.

Gómez, Marcelo et al. (2013) Estudio de caso sobre condiciones de vida, inclusión social y cumplimiento de derechos humanos de la población LGBTI en el Ecuador (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos). En línea: https://www.ecuadorencifras.gob.ec/documentos/web-inec/Estadisticas_Sociales/LGBTI/Analisis_situacion_LGBTI.pdf [Consultado el 2 de diciembre de 2019].

Hebl, Mikki; Cheng, Shannon K. y Ng, Linnea C. (2020) Modern discrimination in organizations, Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, nº 7, pp. 1-26.

Hossain, Mohammed; Atif, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ammad y Mia, Lockman (2019) Do LGBT workplace diversity policies create value for firms? Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 1-17.

Hwang, Jeongha y Hopkins, Karen (2012) Organizational inclusion, commitment, and turnover among child welfare workers: A multilevel mediation analysis, Administration in Social Work, nº 36, pp. 23-39.

Jones, Kristen P.; Peddie, Chad I.; Gilrane Veronica L.; King, Eden B. y Gray, Alexis L. (2016) Not so subtle: A meta-analytic investigation of the correlates of subtle and overt discrimination, Journal of Management, nº 42, pp. 1588-1613.

Kaplan, David M. (2006) Can diversity training discriminate? Backlash to lesbian, gay, and bisexual diversity initiatives, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, nº 18, pp. 61-72.

Kersley, Barbara; Alpin, Carmen; Forth, John; Bryson, Alex; Bewley, Helen; Dixon, Gill y Oxenbridge, Sarah (2007) Inside the workplace: first findings from the 2004 workplace employment relations survey, Londres, Routledge.

Krentz, Matt; Dean, Justin; Garcia-Alonso, Jenn; Brooks Taplett, Frances; Tsusaka, Miki y Vaughn, Elliot (2019). Fixing the flawed: Approach to diversity, en http://image-src.bcg.com/Images/BCG-Fixing-the-Flawed-Approach-to-Diversity-Jan-2019-R_tcm9-212433.pdf [Consultado el 2 de diciembre de 2019].

Major, Brenda y O’Brien, Laurie T. (2005) The social psychology of stigma, Annual Review of Psychology, nº 56, pp. 393-421.

McFadden, Ciarán (2015) Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender careers and Human Resource Development: A Systematic Literature Review, Human Resource Development Review, nº 14, pp. 125-162.

Miles, Matthew; Huberman, A. Michael y Saldaña, Johnny (2014) Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook, Londres, Sage.

Miner, Kathi N. y Costa, Paula L. (2018) Ambient workplace heterosexism: Implications for sexual minority and heterosexual employees, Stress and Health, nº 34, pp. 563–572.

Mor Barak, Michàlle; Lizano, Erica L.; Ahraemi, Kim; Duan, Lei; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Hsiao, Hsin-Yi y Brimhall, Kim C. (2016) The promise of diversity management for climate of inclusion: A state-of-the-art review and meta-analysis, Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance, nº 40, pp 305-333.

Ng, Eddy S. y Burke, Ronald J. (2005) Person–organization fit and the war for talent: does diversity management make a difference? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, nº 16, pp. 1195-1210.

Nölke, Ana Isabel (2018) Making diversity conform? An intersectional, longitudinal analysis of LGBT-specific mainstream media advertisements, Journal of Homosexuality, nº 65, pp. 224–255.

Obi, Innocentina y Bollen, Katalien (2017) Inclusive HRM in West Africa? Women’s religious congregations in Nigeria, en Arenas Alicia, Di Marco Donatella, Munduate Lourdes y Euwema Martin (Eds), Shaping Inclusive Workplaces Through Social Dialogue, Springer, Cham, pp. 239-250.

Pettigrew, Thomas F. y Tropp, Linda R. (2008) How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators, European Journal of Social Psychology, nº 38, pp. 922-934

Pitts, David (2009) Diversity management, job satisfaction, and performance: Evidence from U.S. federal agencies, Public Administration Review, nº 69, pp. 328-338.

Ragins, Belle Rose (2004). Sexual orientation in the workplace: The unique work and career experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual workers, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, nº 23, pp. 35-120.

Roberson, Quinetta M. (2019) Diversity in the workplace: A review, synthesis, and future research agenda, Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, nº 6, pp. 69-88.

Schilpzand, Pauline; De Pater, Irene E. y Erez, Amir (2014) Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research, Journal of Organizational Behavior, nº 37, pp. 57-88.

Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo (2017). Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2017-2021. Toda una vida. En línea: https://www.planificacion.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2017/10/PNBV-26-OCT-FINAL_0K.compressed1.pdf [Consultado el 2 de diciembre de 2019].

Smith, Sara J., Axelton, Amber M. y Saucier, Donald A. (2009) The effects of contact on sexual prejudice: A meta-analysis, Sex Roles, nº 61, pp. 178-191.

Ward, James y Winstanley, Diana (2005) Coming out at work: Performativity and the recognition and renegotiation of identity, The Sociological Review, nº 53, pp. 447–475.


Texto completo: PDF
Contador de visualizaciones: Resumen : 139 vistas. PDF : 64 vistas.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

ISSN: 2631-2700